Wagh, S., Sen, S., Iyer, G., and Shukla, S., "Development of Exhaust Silencer for Improved Sound Quality and Optimum Back Pressure," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0388, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0388.
For an automotive exhaust system, noise level and back pressure are the most important parameters for passenger comfort and engine performance respectively. The sound quality perception of the existing silencer design was unacceptable, although the back pressure measured was below the target limit. To improve the existing design, few concepts were prepared by changing the internal elements of silencer only. The design constraints were the silencer shell dimensions, volume of silencer, inlet pipe and outlet tailpipe positions, which had to be kept same as that of the existing base design. The sound quality signal replaying and synthesizing was performed to define the desired sound quality. The numerical simulation involves 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with appropriate boundary condition having less numerical diffusions to predict the back pressure. The various silencer concepts developed with this preliminary analysis, was then experimentally verified with the numerical data. Using this hybrid approach of experiment and simulation, an optimum design of silencer internals has been developed for achieving acceptable sound quality, overall noise levels and back pressure without affecting the engine performance.