Soudbakhsh, D. and Eskandarian, A., "A Collision Avoidance Steering Controller using Linear Quadratic Regulator," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0459, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0459.
Vehicle steering control can provide assistance to drivers for lane keeping, automated trajectory following, or more extreme evasive maneuvers. An active torque control steering system is designed using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), and its performance was evaluated using the commercial software CARSIM. The system is developed to maintain a desired trajectory for the vehicle in performing evasive maneuvers to avoid imminent crash scenarios. In order to better understand the behavior of the system with different controllers, a simple bicycle model of the vehicle was developed, and an LQR controller was developed to control vehicle steering torque. The controller uses yaw angle, yaw rate, velocity, and position of the vehicle to generate the required steering torque to follow the desired trajectory. An observer was developed to estimate non-measured parameters. Trajectories are generated to follow a lane change before reaching the obstacle. The developed system was tested in various obstacle avoidance and lane change scenarios, and the vehicle was able to avoid obstacles.