Watson, T., Cech, L., and Eßers, S., "A Driving Simulator HMI Study Comparing a Steering Wheel Mounted Display to HUD, Instrument Panel and Center Stack Displays for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and Warnings," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1039, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-1039.
Simple, effective, and appropriately placed visual information must be available to the driver as part of a well designed Human Machine Interface (HMI). Visual interfaces for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), secondary task control, and safety warnings should attempt to minimize both driver reaction time to warnings and the workload on the driver to comprehend a warning or respond to driving advice or information. A driving simulator study was designed and executed to assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of three display concepts. The study directly compared the driver warning reaction and overall workload for three visual HMIs: the conventional instrument panel and center-stack displays (IP/CS), an idealized heads up display (HUD), and the Communication Steering Wheel (CSW) display. Study participants were required to respond to secondary convenience control tasks (4 tasks); safety warnings (3 scenarios); and also a peripheral detection task (PDT). The safety scenarios included a Frontal Collision Warning (FCW), and an Electronic Brake Light (EBL) warning. Results of the study indicate that the CSW is a viable display with statistically significant improved driver reaction compared to HUD and IP for the FCW scenario. Results from both the EBL scenario and a convenience task also support the conclusions that the CSW and HUD facilitate reduced driver workload and improved response compared with the IP/CS displays.