Tian, G., Li, H., Xu, H., Li, Y. et al., "Spray Characteristics Study of DMF Using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars – Mech. Syst. 3(1):948-958, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1505.
2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. In this paper, the spray characteristics of DMF and its blends with gasoline were studied from a high pressure direct injection gasoline injector using the shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques, This includes the spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of the various mixtures. In parallel commercial gasoline and ethanol were measured in order to compare the characteristics of DMF. A total of 52 points were measured along the spray so that the experimental results could be used for subsequent numerical modeling. In summary, the experimental results showed that DMF and its blends have similar spray properties to gasoline, compared to ethanol. The droplet size of DMF is generally smaller than ethanol and decreases faster with the increase of injection pressure. The mean velocity of DMF spray droplets is similar to gasoline and higher than ethanol. Ultimately, the spray characteristics of DMF are better suited to the gasoline engine technology than its counterpart, ethanol.