A novel method of measuring cylinder gas temperature in an internal combustion engine cylinder is introduced. The physical basis for the technique is that the flow rate through an orifice is a function of the temperature of the gas flowing through the orifice. Using a pressure transducer in the cylinder, and another in a chamber connected to the cylinder via an orifice, it is shown how the cylinder temperature can be determined with useful sensitivity. In this paper the governing equations are derived, which show that the heat transfer characteristics of the chamber are critical to the performance of the system, and that isothermal or adiabatic conditions give the optimum performance. For a typical internal combustion engine, it is found that the pre-compression cylinder temperature is related to the chamber pressure late in the compression process with sensitivity of the order of 0.005 bar/K.