Zornes, D., "Vacua Buoyancy Is Provided by a Vacuum Bag Comprising a Vacuum Membrane Film Wrapped Around a Three-Dimensional (3D) Frame to Displace Air, on Which 3D Graphene “Floats” a First Stack of Two-Dimensional Planer Sheets of Six-Member Carbon Atoms Within the Same 3D Space as a Second Stack of Graphene Oriented at a 90-Degree Angle," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1784, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-1784.
In a new airship, a Vacua Dirigible, vacuum bags displace air with a vacuum more buoyant than helium or hydrogen dirigibles. New graphite ultrathin nanomembranes made of layered graphene make vacuum bags gastight. An electric swing cycle is applied across nanomembranes to reduce air density on selected outside dirigible surfaces to gracefully control buoyancy. A vacuum bag comprises a gastight nanomembrane film wrapped around a three-dimensional (3D) frame to displace air. At rest, the partial vacuum "vacua" is air buoyant and will remain an airship. Air buoyancy is an instant on or off state controlled by reducing air density on the outside of the dirigible surface by applying electricity to surface electric swing circuits. Complete control of buoyancy, altitude, and orientation, including free fall, is provided by electrically flashing xenon from small voltage inputs within each vacuum bag surface. Batteries can be charged from airborne-generated static electricity to power the electric swing circuit cycles. A Buckyball-type sphere is an optional airship design that provides twenty hexagon curves extruded to a point and twelve pentagon curves extruded to a point. These thirty-two vacuum bags are manufactured from gastight six-member carbon molecules of graphene arrayed into composite ultrathin nanomembranes. Each surface of the hexagon vacuum bags gastight nanomembranes are individual electric circuits. In Figures 3-5, 3D graphene "floats" a first stack of two-dimensional (2D) planar sheets of six-member carbon atoms within the same 3D space as a second stack of graphene oriented at a 90° angle. 3D graphene atomic trap nanomembranes in Figure 3 that ring link six-member carbon atoms together maintain an extremely high vacuum for the greatest buoyancy of a Vacua Dirigible. 3D graphene atomic trap nanomembranes can become an extremely high pressure air beam where no other material is as thin, strong, flexible, electrically conductive, and gastight.