Fuel economy is critical for heavy-duty line haul applications. As fuel prices rise and impending fuel economy regulations are implemented, new ways to improve heavy-vehicle fuel economy will be in high demand. AVL Powertrain Engineering has undertaken a research and development project to demonstrate the feasibility of a Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. The goals of the project were to reduce the overall engine heat rejection, specific emissions and fuel consumption (CO₂ emissions) of heavy-duty diesel engines by converting heat that is typically wasted to the exhaust stack and through the EGR cooler to useable mechanical energy. A detailed thermodynamic analysis was conducted which laid the groundwork for working fluid selection and proper sizing of the WHR components. Based on the system specifications, a prototype WHR system was designed and built. The performance of the system was evaluated on a 10.8-liter heavy-duty on-highway diesel engine.