Marr, M., Wallace, J., Memme, S., Chandra, S. et al., "An Investigation of Metal and Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings in a Spark-Ignition Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 3(2):115-125, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2090.
Surface temperature and heat flux were measured in a single cylinder SI engine piston when uncoated and with two different surface coatings: a metal TBC and YSZ. Average heat flux into the piston substrate was 33 % higher with the metal TBC and unchanged with the YSZ relative to the uncoated surface. The increase with the metal TBC was attributed to its surface roughness. However, the metal TBC and YSZ reduced peak heat flux into the substrate surface by 69 % and 77 %, respectively.