Sappok, A., Bromberg, L., Parks, J., and Prikhodko, V., "Loading and Regeneration Analysis of a Diesel Particulate Filter with a Radio Frequency-Based Sensor," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2126, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2126.
Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) particulate matter (PM) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) - based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF particulate matter levels. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based total PM emission measurement instrument (TEOM) and DPF gravimetric measurements.Comparison with pressure drop measurements show the RF technique is unaffected by exhaust flow variations and exhibits a high degree of sensitivity to DPF particulate matter loading and good dynamic response over transient operating conditions. Additional computational work further illustrates the potential for spatially-resolved RF measurements. Based on the experimental results, the RF technique shows significant promise for improving DPF control enabling optimization of the combined engine-aftertreatment system for improved fuel economy and extended DPF service life.