Lewis, S., Storey, J., Sluder, C., Cho, K. et al., "Carbonyl Formation during High Efficiency Clean Combustion of FACE Fuels," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):849-856, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2212.
The low temperature conditions that occur during high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) often lead to the formation of partially oxidized HC species such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. Using the diesel fuels specified by the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) working group, carbonyl species were collected from the exhaust of a light duty diesel engine operating under HECC conditions. High pressure liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to speciate carbonyls as large as C 9 . A relationship between carbonyl species formed in the exhaust and fuel composition and properties was determined. Data were collected at the optimum fuel efficiency point for a typical road load condition. Results of the carbonyl analysis showed changes in formaldehyde and acetaldehyde formation, formation of higher molecular weight carbonyls and the formation of aromatic carbonyls. Details of these changes in carbonyl formation and discussion of formation mechanisms will be presented.