Boretti, A., "Coupling of a KERS Power Train and a Downsized 1.2TDI Diesel or a 1.6TDI-JI H2 Engine for Improved Fuel Economies in a Compact Car," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2228, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2228.
Recovery of braking energy during driving cycles is the most effective option to improve fuel economy and reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Hybrid electric vehicles suffer the disadvantages of the four efficiency-reducing transformations in each regenerative braking cycle. Flywheel kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) may boost this efficiency up to almost double values of about 70% avoiding all four of the efficiency-reducing transformations from one form of energy to another and keeping the vehicle's energy in the same form as when the vehicle starts braking when the vehicle is back up to speed. With reference to the baseline configuration with a 1.6 liters engine and no recovery of kinetic energy, introduction of KERS reduces the fuel usage to 3.16 liters per 100 km, corresponding to 82.4 g of CO₂ per km. The 1.6 liters Turbo Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine without KERS uses 1.37 MJ per km of fuel energy, reducing with KERS to 1.13 MJ per km. Downsizing the engine to 1.2 liters as permitted by the torque assistance by KERS, the fuel consumption is further reduced to 3.04 liters per 100 km, corresponding to 79.2 g of CO₂ per km and 1.09 MJ per km of fuel energy. These CO₂ and fuel usage values are 11% and 13% better than those of today's highest fuel economy hybrid electric vehicle. The car equipped with a 1.6-liter Turbo Direct Injection Jet Ignition (TDI-JI) H₂ICE engine finally consumes 8.3 g per km of fuel, corresponding to only 0.99 MJ per km of fuel energy.