Modern diesel Fuel Injection Equipment (FIE) systems are susceptible to the formation of a variety of deposits. These can occur in different locations, e.g. in nozzle spray-holes and inside the injector body. The problems associated with deposits are increasing and are seen in both Passenger Car (PC) and Heavy Duty (HD) vehicles. Mechanisms responsible for the formation of these deposits are not limited to one particular type.This paper reviews FIE deposits developed in modern PC and HD engines using a variety of bench engine testing and field trials. Euro 4/ IV and Euro 5/V engines were selected for this programme. The fuels used ranged from fossil only to distillate fuels containing up to 10% Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and then treated with additives to overcome the formation of FIE deposits.It was observed that engine performance was significantly impacted by the formation of deposits which may lead to increased fuel consumption, loss in power, poor driveability and failure to start.The selection of appropriate fuel additive technology allows control of all deposit types, either by preventing their formation or restoring engine performance.