Ueda, M., Hirota, T., and Hatano, A., "Challenges of Widespread Marketplace Acceptance of Electric Vehicles -- Towards a Zero-Emission Mobility Society," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2312, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2312.
Curbing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is believed by many scientists to be a major contributor to global warming, is one of the top priority issues that must be addressed by automobile manufacturers. Automakers have set their own strategies to improve fuel economy and to reduce CO₂ emissions. Some of them include integrated approaches, focusing on not only improvement of vehicle technology, but also human factors (eco-driving support for drivers) and social and transportation factors (traffic management by intelligent transportation systems [ITS]). Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) will be a key contributor to attaining the challenging goal of CO₂ reduction. Mass deployment of EVs is required to achieve a zero-emission society. To accomplish that, new advanced technologies, new business schemes, and new partnerships are required.This paper describes Nissan's challenges and solutions in the following three areas aimed at achieving widespread marketplace acceptance of electric vehicles: - Technologies for electric vehicles, such as lithium-ion batteries and advanced motor control, - Establishment of an infrastructure with partners, - New business strategies based on the use of EV batteries, such as a battery leasing model and a new "4R" business model of reuse, resell, re-fabricate and recycle, to give EV batteries a second life as energy storage solutions in markets worldwide.