Jochim, M. and Forest, T., "An Efficient Implementation of the SM Agreement Protocol for a Time Triggered Communication System," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Electron. Electr. Syst. 3(2):106-116, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2320.
FlexRay is a time triggered automotive communication protocol that connects ECUs (Electronic Control Units) on which distributed automotive applications are executed. If exact agreement (e.g. on physical values measured by redundant sensors on different ECUs) must be reached in the presence of asymmetric communication faults, a byzantine agreement protocol like Signed Messages (SM) can be utilized. This paper gives examples of how byzantine faults can emerge in a FlexRay-based system and proposes optimizations for a FlexRay-specific implementation of the SM protocol. The protocol modifications allow for a reduction in the number of protocol messages under a slightly relaxed fault model, as well as for a reduction in the number of messages to be temporarily stored by the ECUs.