Lee, J., Gitano, H., Eu, H., and Mohd Khalil, A., "Development of Motorcycle Drive Cycles for Malaysia," SAE Technical Paper 2010-32-0041, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-32-0041.
Existing drive cycles do not correlate well with actual drive cycles in developing countries due to differences in vehicle mixes, and traffic flow patterns. Several distinct drive cycles were identified in Malaysia namely the urban, suburban, rural, highway and delivery drive cycles. Several methods were used in generating drive cycles including direct observation, motorcyclist surveys, vehicle shadowing with on-board wheel speed measurement and data logging. These drive cycles were compared to existing European, United States, world harmonized motorcycle drive cycles and evaluated for fuel consumption. Results indicate that the Malaysian drive cycles are capable predicting actual vehicle fuel mileage within +/− 10% for a wide range of vehicles, while the European drive cycle results in a 20%deviation from the actual vehicle fuel mileage.