Lietz, R., Hupertz, B., Lewington, N., Silveira, R. et al., "Benchmarking of an Open Source CFD Process for Aerodynamics Prediction of Multiple Vehicle Types," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0163, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0163.
A benchmark study was conducted to assess the capability of an open source CFD based process to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around various vehicle types. The ICON FOAMpro process was used to simulate the flow field of four baseline geometries of a Truck, CD-Car, B-Car and an SUV. Further studies were carried out to assess the effects of geometry variations on the predicted aerodynamic lift and drag. A Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) approach was chosen for the benchmarks. In addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values, the results for surface pressure data, surface and wake flow fields were calculated. These results were compared with values obtained using Ford's existing CFD processes.