DeBruin, M. and Jordan, S., "Weight Reduction Using Massive Carbide Free Thin Walled Ductile Iron Produced via Lost Foam Casting," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0426, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0426.
Significant research has been conducted with the goal of obtaining thin walled ductile iron for use in lighter weight designs. A review is made of the past efforts to achieve thin walled ductile iron. Most past efforts resorted to costly processes or non-standard production practices. Lost Foam Casting (LFC) is an alternate foundry process which used in conjunction with standard melt shop practices results in a massive carbide free structure when used with thin section size. Chemistry, hardness tests, microstructures, and design improvements of a case study are reviewed.