Llaneras, R., Neurauter, M., and Green, C., "Factors Moderating the Effectiveness of Rear Vision Systems: What Performance-Shaping Factors Contribute to Drivers' Detection and Response to Unexpected In-Path Obstacles When Backing?," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0549, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-0549.
General Motors (GM) and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) have partnered to conduct a series of studies characterizing the use and effectiveness of technologies designed to assist drivers while backing. A major emphasis of this research has been on Rear Vision Camera (RVC) systems that provide drivers with an enhanced view of the area behind the vehicle. RVC systems are intended to aid in positioning the vehicle when executing low-speed parking and backing-related tasks and are not necessarily well suited for detecting unexpected in-path obstacles (particularly if the RVC image is not coupled with object detection alerts issued to the driver). This GM/VTTI research has addressed both the physical and design properties of the RVC image (e.g., optical distortion, quality and clarity of information, amount of information, display size and location, etc.) as well as driver behavioral and perceptual aspects related to RVC use (e.g., driver reliance, impacts on drivers' mirror sampling patterns, frequency of use, duration of glances, ability to accurately judge distances, potential unintended consequences). This paper outlines the complex set of performance-shaping factors found to play a role in moderating the use of RVC systems and unexpected obstacle detection/avoidance performance, including user experience, display location, and driving scenario.