An experimental investigation was conducted using a Ford single-cylinder spark-ignition research engine to compare the performance and emissions of neat n-butanol fuel to that of gasoline and ethanol. Measurements of brake torque and exhaust gas temperature along with in-cylinder pressure traces were used to study the performance of the engine and measurements of emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide ere used to compare the three fuels in terms of combustion byproducts. It was found that gasoline and butanol are closest in engine performance with butanol producing slightly less brake torque. Exhaust gas temperature and nitrogen oxide measurements show that butanol combusts at a lower peak temperature. Of particular interest were the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons which were between two and three times those of gasoline suggesting that butanol is not atomizing as effectively as gasoline and ethanol.