Watanabe, Y. and Sayers, M., "The Effect of Nonlinear Suspension Kinematics on the Simulated Pitching and Cornering Behavior of Motorcycles," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0960, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0960.
This paper describes modeling methods used in the commercial BikeSim® simulation package to represent alternative suspension design concepts. The modeling method used for automotive suspensions is applied to define generic suspensions for motorcycles. This method can represent multi-link suspension systems as well as traditional motorcycle suspensions with telescopic front forks and rear swing arms. Comparisons of two suspension types show a multi-link suspension can provide advantages over the traditional system for braking, acceleration (throttle), and cornering. Similar comparisons made with a chain-drive powertrain and a shaft-drive powertrain show less jacking with the chain-drive design. Although the math models include complex nonlinear motions, the computational efficiency supports fast operation; on a 2.8 GHz PC the simulation runs eight times faster than real time.