In order to define and to optimize a thermal management system for a high voltage vehicular battery, it is essential to understand the environmental factors acting on the battery and their influence on battery life. This paper defines a calendar life aging model for a battery, and applies real world environmental and operating conditions to that model. Charge and usage scenarios are combined with various cooling/heating approaches. This set of scenarios is then applied to the calendar life model, permitting optimization of battery thermal management strategies. Real-world battery life can therefore be maximized, and trade-offs for grid energy conversion efficiency and fuel economy/vehicle range can be determined.