Setiapraja, H., Ozawa, T., Hara, K., Yamazaki, K. et al., "Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Aqueous Ethanol and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with High Rates of EGR and Split Fuel Injections," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1820, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1820.
Silent, clean, and efficient combustion was realized with emulsified blends of aqueous ethanol and diesel fuel in a DI diesel with pilot injection and cooled EGR. The pilot injection sufficiently suppressed the rapid combustion to acceptable levels. The thermal efficiency with the emulsified fuel improved as the heat release with the pilot injection was retarded to near top dead center, due to poor ignitability and also due to a reduction in afterburning. With the emulsified fuel containing 40 vol% ethanol and 10 vol% water (E40W10), the smokeless operation range can be considerably extended even under low fuel injection pressure or low intake oxygen content conditions.