Tibiriçá, M., "Considerations on the Replacement of the Filament Lamp by Light Emitting Diodes (LED) on the External Vehicular Lighting," SAE Technical Paper 2011-36-0277, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-36-0277.
In the mid 1980s came out the first application of LED (Light Emitting Diode) in automotive external signalization. The red LED was being applied in Brake Lights or Center High Mount Stop Lamps (CHMSL). Since then the number of LED applications in automotive signalization has increased to the same extent that the LED luminous efficiency has exceeded the filament lamp.Currently the LED lighting solutions for automotive application are multiplying by the thousands but vehicle manufacturers and auto parts industry are facing problems regarding the compatibility between LED devices and vehicle electrical systems which were originally designed for filament lamp devices. This study has the objective to make a comparative analysis of the electrical characteristics of both LED and filament lamp technologies and show their differences and barriers that must be overcome for effective implementation of the LED device as the ultimate successor of the filament lamp in the automotive external lighting.