Nemesh, M., Martinchick, M., and Ibri, S., "Cabin Heating and Windshield Defrosting for Extended Range Electric, Pure Electric, & Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 1(1):12-18, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0121.
Conventional HVAC systems adjust the position of a temperature door, to achieve a required air temperature discharged into the passenger compartment. Such systems are based upon the fact that a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle's engine coolant temperature is controlled to a somewhat constant temperature, using an engine thermostat. Coolant flow rate through the cabin heater core varies as the engine speed changes.EREVs (Extended Range Electric Vehicles) & PHEVs (Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles) have two key vehicle requirements: maximize EV (Electric Vehicle) range and maximize fuel economy when the engine is operating. In EV mode, there is no engine heat rejection and battery pack energy is consumed in order to provide heat to the passenger compartment, for windshield defrost/defog and occupant comfort. Energy consumption for cabin heating must be optimized, if one is to optimize vehicle EV range.A new heating system has been developed for providing cabin heating and windshield defrost for such new vehicle propulsion systems, which includes a HV (High-voltage) PTC (positive temperature coefficient) coolant heater, electric coolant pump, and coolant control valve.