Lee, J. and Huh, K., "Prediction of Number Density, Volume Fraction and Size Distribution of Soot Particles in a Diesel Engine under Various Operating Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0136, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0136.
Computation is performed to predict number density, volume fraction and size distribution of soot particles in typical operating conditions of a diesel engine. KIVA has been integrated with the CMC routine to consider turbulence/chemistry coupling and gas phase kinetics for heat release and soot precursors. The compositions of soot precursors are estimated by tracking Lagrangian particles to consider spatial inhomogeneity and differential diffusion in KIVA. The soot simulator SWEEP is employed as a postprocessing step to calculate conditional and integral quantities of soot particles. There are larger particles produced at a higher load or a lower rpm, but no consistent trend for injection timing in the conditional size distribution at the mixture fraction of 0.12. The integral results are obtained for number density, total mass and size distribution by summing up the histories of all tracked particles in the cylinder. They show similar overall trends as the conditional results, while the size distribution shows an opposite trend with respect to rpm due to the competing effects of time for particle growth and the degree of mixing and differential diffusion.