Shokrzadeh, S. and Bibeau, E., "Repurposing Batteries of Plug-In Electric Vehicles to Support Renewable Energy Penetration in the Electric Grid," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0348, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0348.
After they reach their technical on-board end-of-life, plug-in electric vehicles batteries can provide opportunities for second life applications. Plug-in-hybrid and battery-only electric vehicles could provide utility-scale battery storage that could support grid applications, like for example, integration of intermittent renewable energy. For renewables like wind and solar intermittency acts as a major barrier to achieve high penetration scenarios. This paper examines how Li-ion batteries of plug-in electric vehicles reaching approximately 70% of their initial charging capacity can be repurposed and be used to integrate wind power to minimize grid impacts. As the cost can restrict the use of utility-scale use of batteries, repurposed batteries could provide an economical approach to integrate wind energy. We present a model that predicts the capacity of available kWh given the market share projections of plug-in electric vehicles for Canada through 2050. In addition, battery storage requirement to produce uniform wind power is determined by applying high-resolution wind data. The simulation model shows that by 2050, generated wind power supported by repurposed batteries could meet the load demand imposed by plug-in electric vehicles. Therefore, repurposing aftermarket batteries has the potential to maximize the renewable energy ratio by displacing gasoline with new sources of intermittent renewable wind energy with minimal grid impact.