Mackintosh, T., "Identification of Transportation Battery Systems for Recycling," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0351, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0351.
Electrification of the transportation industry is increasing rapidly with batteries currently the technology of choice. At the end of life, the battery chemistry used to electrify the vehicle may not be easily identifiable. A simple, common identifier is required to allow consumers, service and waste management personnel to direct unknown battery types to appropriate recyclers or secondary use markets. Recyclers also benefit from this identifier as it allows them to sort, screen for potential contamination to existing process streams, and identify the manufacturer so they may contact them to find detailed information about the battery to ensure proper and safe recycling.The SAE Battery Recycling Committee has recommended that batteries be identified by battery system, miscellaneous hazards and date of manufacture be identified as part of chemistry identification code. For the lithium-ion chemistry it is further recommended that cathode and anode be specified. To avoid confusion and duplication with other standards, the SAE identifier has selected identification letters and a color background consistent with the Battery Association of Japan's (BAJ) “Guidelines for Recycle Mark on Batteries” (1).