Sellnau, M., Sinnamon, J., Hoyer, K., and Husted, H., "Full-Time Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) for High Efficiency and Low NOx and PM," SAE Int. J. Engines 5(2):300-314, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0384.
A gasoline compression-ignition combustion system is being developed for full-time operation over the speed-load map. Low-temperature combustion was achieved using multiple late injection (MLI), intake boost, and moderate EGR for high efficiency, low NOx, and low particulate emissions. The relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of RON 91 pump gasoline combined with an advanced injection system and variable valve actuation provided controlled mixture stratification for low combustion noise.Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine. Design of Experiments and response surface models were used to evaluate injection strategies, injector designs, and various valve lift profiles across the speed-load operating range. At light loads, an exhaust rebreathing strategy was used to promote autoignition and maintain exhaust temperatures. At medium loads, a triple injection strategy produced the best results with high thermal efficiency. Detailed heat release analysis indicated that heat losses were significantly reduced. At higher loads, a late-intake-valve-closing strategy was used to reduce the effective compression ratio. For all tests, intake air temperature was 50 C.3D CFD simulations of fuel injection, mixing, and combustion were important to understand the emissions formation processes. With multiple late injections and low-to-moderate fuel pressure, spray penetration was low, mixing was fast, and wall wetting could be avoided. Fuel sprays were characterized in a spray chamber. Injection rate was measured using a rate tube.Results showed that ISFC was very low. Minimum ISFC of 181 g/kWh was measured at 2000 rpm-11 bar IMEP. For IMEP from 2 to 18 bar, engine-out NOx and PM emissions were below targets of 0.2 g/kWh and 0.1 FSN, respectively, indicating that aftertreatment for these species may be reduced or eliminated. It was found that combustion noise levels, characterized by several noise metrics, could be effectively controlled by the injection process. Measurements of exhaust particulate size distribution indicated very low particle count, especially for a preferred injector with low levels of in-cylinder swirl.Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential feasibility of full-time GDCI using RON 91 gasoline at low-to-moderate injection pressures with high fuel efficiency. While more development work is needed, there is good potential for a practical GDCI powertrain system based on these concepts.