Wilkinson, P. and Kennedy, R., "Reducing CO2 Emissions from Port Injected Gasoline Engines Using Novel Micro-Superchargers and Fuel-Air Mixing Technologies," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0420, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0420.
This paper introduces for the first time a new concept in fuel/air handling technology that has been shown to deliver reductions in fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions in port-injected gasoline engines. Whilst direct injection provides a route to significant improvements in gasoline engine efficiency there are drawbacks in terms of cost, complexity, particulate emissions and NVH. The technology presented in this paper offers a route to improving the efficiency of the conventional port injected engine.The technology essentially consists of a system that mixes fuel and air, promotes exceptional levels of swirl and provides a low level supercharging effect. The system sits between the fuel injector and the inlet port, with one system per cylinder.A simple prototype system has been fitted to a 1.6-liter Ford Focus, with independent testing showing up to 9% reduction in CO₂ emissions (and commensurate reductions in fuel consumption) and up to 40% reduction in NOx.Results of independent, vehicle level tests using the standard New European Drive Cycle are presented to show how the technology reduces key exhaust gas emissions through different phases of the test.