Kurtz, E. and Styron, J., "An Assessment of Two Piston Bowl Concepts in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 5(2):344-352, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0423.
Two combustion systems were developed and optimized for an engine for a power cylinder of 0.8-0.9L/cylinder. The first design was a re-entrant bowl concept which was based on the combustion system of a smaller engine with roughly 0.5L/cylinder. The second design was a chamfered bowl concept, a variant of a reentrant bowl that deliberately splits fuel between the bowl and the squish region. For each combustion system concept, nozzle tip protrusion, swirl, and nozzle configuration (number of holes, nozzle flow, and spray angle) were optimized. Several similarities between combustion system concepts were noted, including the optimal swirl and number of holes. The resulting optimums for each concept were compared. The chamfered combustion system was found to have better part-load emissions and fuel consumption tradeoffs. Full load performance was similar at low speed between the two combustion systems, but the reentrant combustion system had advantages at high engine speed and load. The results suggest that the chamfered combustion system may be a better option for lower speed engine concepts of this size, but that the reentrant combustion system may be better for high speed and high power density applications.