Ogawa, A., Mashio, S., Yano, S., and Kawamura, T., "Quantitative Representations of Aerodynamic Effects on Handling Response and Flat Ride of Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 5(1):304-323, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0445.
The effects of aerodynamic coefficients on handling response and flat ride were quantified. For handling response, the aerodynamic effect was quantified by analysis with linear representation and a two-wheel simulation model, using aerodynamic coefficients obtained from a full scale car wind tunnel. The correlation of aerodynamic coefficients and handling response with driving feel was also ascertained. Aerodynamic yaw moment and side-force were also converted to equivalent front and rear lift to standardize aerodynamic indexes and improve aerodynamic development efficiency. For flat ride, steady and unsteady aerodynamic effects were quantified by analysis with a two-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper simulation model and aerodynamic coefficients obtained from a 35% scale model wind tunnel and towing tank test. Unsteady aerodynamic force occurrence mechanism was ascertained by unsteady CFD using dynamic mesh. This has made it possible to consider aerodynamic characteristics from the first stage of vehicle performance design.