Parrish, S., Zhang, G., and Zink, R., "Liquid and Vapor Envelopes of Sprays from a Multi-Hole Fuel Injector Operating under Closely-Spaced Double-Injection Conditions," SAE Int. J. Engines 5(2):400-414, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0462.
Liquid and vapor envelopes of sprays from a multi-hole fuel injector operating under closely-spaced double-injection conditions were investigated using a combination of high-speed schlieren and Mie scattering imaging. The effects of mass split ratio and dwell time between injections on liquid and vapor penetration have been investigated under engine-like pressures and temperatures. For the conditions evaluated, the results indicate that closely-spaced double-injection generally reduces liquid and vapor penetration.