Power-split hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) employ two power paths between the internal combustion (IC) engine and the driven wheels routed through gearing and electric machines (EMs) composing an electrically variable transmission (EVT). The EVT allows IC engine control such that rotational speed can be independent of vehicle speed at all times. By breaking the rigid mechanical connection between the IC engine and the driven wheels, the EVT allows the IC engine to operate in the most efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. If the most efficient IC engine operating point produces more power than is requested by the driver, the excess IC engine power can be stored in the energy storage system (ESS) and used later. Conversely, if the most efficient IC engine operating point does not meet the power request of the driver, the ESS delivers the difference to the wheels through the EMs. Therefore with an intelligent supervisory control strategy, power-split architectures can advantageously combine traditional series and parallel power paths.
Previous work compared two different power-split HEV powertrains using a 2-term cost function and steady-state backward-looking simulation (BLS). BLS was used to find battery power management strategies resulting in minimized fuel consumption over a user-defined drive-cycle. The supervisory control strategy design approach amounts to an exhaustive search over all kinematically