Smith, K., Earleywine, M., Wood, E., Neubauer, J. et al., "Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive Cycles," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0666, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0666.
In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle, and charging scenarios. Because worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate calendar degradation for various geographic environments and simplified cycling scenarios. The life model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of plug-in electric hybrid vehicles (PHEV10 and PHEV40) vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from a Texas travel survey. Drive cycle statistics impacting battery life are compared to standard test cycles.