Solaka, H., Aronsson, U., Tuner, M., and Johansson, B., "Investigation of Partially Premixed Combustion Characteristics in Low Load Range with Regards to Fuel Octane Number in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0684, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-0684.
The impact of ignition quality and chemical properties on engine performance and emissions during low load partially premixed combustion (PPC) in a light-duty diesel engine were investigated. Four fuels in the gasoline boiling range, together with Swedish diesel (MK1), were operated at loads between 2 and 8 bar IMEPg at 1500 rpm, with 50% heat released located at 6 crank angle degrees (CAD) after top dead center (TDC). A single injection strategy was used, wherein the start of injection (SOI) and the injection duration were adjusted to achieve desired loads with maintained CA50, as the injection pressure was kept constant at 1000 bar. The objective of this work was to examine the low-load limit for PPC at approximately 50% EGR and λ=1.5, since these levels had been suggested as optimal in earlier studies. The low-load limits with stable combustion were between 5 and 7 bar gross IMEP for the gasoline fuels, higher limit for higher RON values. MK1 had the lowest low-load limit, 3 bar gross IMEP. By increasing λ with the kept EGR ratio, with extended boosting, all the fuels could be operated down to 2 bar IMEPg. The main difference in engine-out emissions between the fuels was the filtered smoke number (FSN), as the gasoline fuels produced much lower smoke than MK1. Higher RON value gave higher levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) for the gasoline fuels, while MK1 had the lowest levels of these emissions.