Abbasi Atibeh, P., Dennis, P., Orbaiz, P., Brear, M. et al., "Lean Burn Performance of a Natural Gas Fuelled, Port Injected, Spark Ignition Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0822, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0822.
This paper presents a study of the performance of a lean burn, natural gas-fuelled, naturally aspirated, spark ignition engine for an E class vehicle. Engine performance and exhaust emissions (NO, CO, and UHC) data are first discussed. An energy balance of the engine operating at different loads and air-fuel ratios is then presented, and used to explain why engine efficiency varies with air-fuel ratio. Finally, the hot start drive cycle CO2e (CO2 equivalent) emissions are estimated for a vehicle with this engine. This shows a potential for significant reduction in vehicle greenhouse gas emissions compared to an equivalent gasoline-fuelled vehicle.