Glewen, W., Heuwetter, D., Foster, D., Andrie, M. et al., "Analysis of Deviations from Steady State Performance During Transient Operation of a Light Duty Diesel Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 5(3):909-922, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1067.
Deviations between transient and steady state operation of a modern light duty diesel engine were identified by comparing rapid load transitions to steady state tests at the same speeds and fueling rates. The validity of approximating transient performance by matching the transient charge air flow rate and intake manifold pressure at steady state was also assessed. Results indicate that for low load operation with low temperature combustion strategies, transient deviations of MAF and MAP from steady state values are small in magnitude or short in duration and have relatively little effect on transient engine performance. A new approximation accounting for variations in intake temperature and excess oxygen content of the EGR was more effective at capturing transient emissions trends, but significant differences in magnitudes remained in certain cases indicating that additional sources of variation between transient and steady state performance remain unaccounted for.