Werner, M., Merkle, A., Graf, S., Holzmüller, R. et al., "Calculation of the Piston Assembly Friction: Classification, Validation and Interpretation," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1323, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1323.
This SAE Technical Paper contains detailed data which are relevant for the calculation of the friction forces of the piston assembly in internal combustion engines. Useful ways of employing calculations besides measurements are exactly classified for the optimization of the piston assembly system in order to reduce friction losses. In the first step the theoretical basics for the calculation of the tribological system are introduced. Referring to the theory, the paper goes into detail about the basic set-up and the modeling degree of the calculation program. Furthermore, measured and calculated curves of friction forces are compared for different operating points. In addition, analysis of the crank-angle resolved friction force are presented with varying engine speeds, oil temperatures and loads and a detailed interpretation of the results is given. Concluding, the overall mechanical losses at the piston assembly are examined with regard to different operating parameters and are presented in the engine map.