Murtonen, T., Aakko-Saksa, P., Koponen, P., Lehto, K. et al., "Emission Reduction Potential with Paraffinic Renewable Diesel by Optimizing Engine Settings or Using Oxygenate," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1590, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1590.
Over the past decade significant research and development activities have been invested in alternative fuels in order to reduce our dependency on fossil fuel sources and reduce CO₂ and local emissions from traffic. One result of these R&D efforts is paraffinic diesel fuels, which can be used with existing vehicle fleets and infrastructures. Paraffinic diesels also have other benefits compared to conventional diesels, for example, a very high cetane number and the lack of sulfur and aromatic compounds. These characteristics are beneficial in terms of exhaust gas emissions, something which has been demonstrated in numerous studies.The objective of this study was to develop low-emission combustion technologies for paraffinic renewable diesel in a compression ignition engine, and to study the possible benefits of oxygenated paraffinic diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), which is a commercial example of paraffinic, renewable diesel, was used with and without oxygenate in comparison with conventional diesel. Exhaust emissions were measured in three steady state conditions. The adjusted engine parameters, such as inlet valve closure and injection timing, injection pressure and amount of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were optimized for HVO. The results demonstrate that significant reductions of particulate matter (48-61%), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (75-87%) and NOx (31-54%) emissions can be achieved simultaneously by using HVO with adjusted engine parameters.