Aronsson, U., Solaka, H., Lequien, G., Andersson, O. et al., "Analysis of Errors in Heat Release Calculations Due to Distortion of the In-Cylinder Volume Trace from Mechanical Deformation in Optical Diesel Engines," SAE Int. J. Engines 5(4):1561-1570, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1604.
Optical engines of Bowditch design may suffer from distortion of the in-cylinder volume trace due to mechanical deformation from inertial, pressure and thermal forces. Errors in heat release calculation associated with such deformation were investigated in detail. The deformations were quantified by measuring the squish height during operation using high speed video. Deformations of all-metal engines were also estimated for comparison. The volume change caused by deformations did not change the calculated load significantly but caused errors in the heat release calculations both for optical and all metal engines. The errors at a given operating condition are smaller for all-metal engines but the importance is not necessarily smaller, since these engines normally are operated at higher loads. The errors can be eliminated by a corrected in-cylinder volume equation and a subtraction of heat release from a motored case.