Sun, R., Thomas, R., and Tang, X., "HCCI Engine Application on a Hydraulic Hybrid Bus," SAE Int. J. Engines 5(4):1581-1594, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1631.
After initial trials on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine design and tests pursuing feedback control to avoid misfire and knocking over wide transient operation ranges, Engineers at the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Vehicle Fuel and Emissions Laboratory identified the crucial engine state variable, MRPR (Maximum Rate of Pressure Rise) and successfully controlled a 1.9L HCCI engine in pure HCCI mode . This engine was used to power a hybrid Ford F-150 truck which successfully ran FTP75 tests in 2004. In subsequent research, efforts have been focused on practical issues such as improving transient rate, system simplification for controllability and packaging, application of production grade in-cylinder pressure sensors, cold start, idling and calibration for ambient conditions as well as oxidation catalyst applications for better turbine efficiency and HC and CO emissions control. A 6.4L V8 HCCI engine and control system was then developed for a hydraulic hybrid shuttle bus as a demonstration platform. The bus has been tested in the laboratory against various driving cycles and driven on city streets, country roads and highways.This paper summarizes the system approach in developing the HCCI engine and its application on the hydraulic hybrid bus.