Compressed natural gas direct-injection (CNG-DI) engines based on diesel cycle combustion system with pilot ignition have ability to achieve high thermal efficiency and low emissions. Generally, underexpanded jets can be formed when the high pressure natural gas is injected into the combustion chamber. In such conditions, shock wave phenomena are the typical behaviors of the jet, which can significantly influence the downstream flow structure and turbulent mixing. In the present study, the characteristics of high-pressure transient jets were investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone as a fuel tracer. The evolution of the pulsed jet shows that there are three typical jet flow patterns (subsonic, moderately underexpanded, and highly underexpanded) during the injection. The full injection process of high-pressure pulsed jets is well described with the help of these shock wave structures. The effects of the injection pressure and shock waves on the jet structures and local mixing activity are highlighted by means of scalar dissipation. Furthermore, the jet tip penetration and jet velocity are analyzed under different injection conditions.