Mobasheri, R. and Peng, Z., "A Computational Investigation into the Effects of Included Spray Angle on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operating Parameters," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1714, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1714.
Effects of included spray angle with different injection strategies on combustion characteristics, performance and amount of pollutant emission have been computationally investigated in a common rail heavy-duty DI diesel engine. The CFD model was firstly validated with experimental data achieved from a Caterpillar 3401 diesel engine for a conventional part load condition at 1600 rev/min. Three different included spray angles (α = 145°, 105°, 90°) were studied in comparison with the traditional spray injection angle (α = 125°). The results show that spray targeting is very effective for controlling the in-cylinder mixture distributions especially when it accompanied with various injection strategies. It was found that 105° spray cone angle along with an optimized split pre- and post-Top Dead Center (TDC) injection strategy could significantly reduce NOx and soot emissions without much penalty of the fuel consumption, as compared to the wide spray angle. In addition, a narrow injection angle offers more efficient air-mixing process due to better interaction with the combustion chamber and cylinder liner.