Darlington, A., Cieslar, D., Collings, N., and Glover, K., "Assessing Boost-Assist Options for Turbocharged Engines Using 1-D Engine Simulation and Model Predictive Control," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1735, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1735.
Delivering acceptable low end torque and good transient response is a significant challenge for all turbocharged engines. As downsized gasoline engines and Diesel engines make up a larger and larger proportion of the light-duty engines entering the market, the issue takes on greater significance.Several schemes have been proposed to improve torque response in highly boosted engines, including the use of electrical assist turbochargers and compressed air assist. In this paper we examine these methods with respect to their effectiveness in improving transient response and their relative performance along with some of the practical considerations for real world application.Results shown in this paper are from 1-D simulations using the Ricardo WAVE software package. The simulation model is based on a production light-duty Diesel engine modified to allow the introduction of compressed air at various points in the air-path as well as direct torque application to the turbocharger shaft (such as might be available from an electrical assist turbocharger).Whilst the 1-D simulation software provides a suitable environment for investigating the various boost assistance options, the overall air path performance also depends upon the control system. The introduction of boost assistance complicates the control in two significant ways: the system may run into constraints (such as compressor surge) that are not encountered in normal operation and the assistance introduces an additional control input.Production engine controllers are usually based on gain-scheduled PID control and extensive calibration. For this study, the non-linear nature of the engine together with the multiple configurations considered and the slower than real-time execution of 1-D models makes such an approach time consuming. Moreover, an ad-hoc approach would leave some doubt as to the fairness of comparisons between the different boost-assist options. Model Predictive Control has been shown to offer a convenient approach to controlling the 1-D simulations in a close to optimal manner for a typical Diesel VGT-EGR air path configuration. We show that the same technique can be applied to all the considered assistance methods with only modest calibration effort required.