Richardson, R., "Automated Work Sequencing in Constrained Areas Using Easily Portable and Optical Projection System," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1885, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1885.
Projection systems are an optically projected 3-D sequence of operations that will guide an assembly technician through a set of complex operations with an intuitive instruction set that is portable and can be quickly set up in complex work areas. Example assembly applications include an aircraft baggage hold of a commercial jet, an inlet duct of a fighter jet, or inside a fuselage of a business jet. Clear, easy-to-follow instructions have been demonstrated to significantly improve assembly time and reduce rework. In many cases, instructions can be completely language independent allowing people of different nationalities to look at the same projection and work the same way without requiring additional instructions. This system provides increased uniformity of span time for given tasks between workers with a wide range of experience which improves scheduling.This paper highlights the uses and application of optically projected work instructions, particularly related to grip length measurement and fastener installation, including portable applications in difficult to access areas.