Lijewski, P., Merkisz, J., and Fuc, P., "The Analysis of the Emission of Particulate Matter from Non-Road Vehicles Under Actual Operating Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1965, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1965.
The paper discusses the measurement of the PM emissions from non-road vehicles (a farm tractor and an excavator) under actual operating conditions. Full exploration of the relations between the operating parameters of these vehicles and their emissions requires measurements under actual conditions of their operation. The specificity of the emission measurements, PM in particular, requires technologically advanced measuring devices. The situation gets even more complicated if, beside the PM mass, we also wish to obtain the PM size distribution and particle number (PN). One of the more important technical issues is the difficulty in fitting of the measurement equipment in/on the vehicle in operation (e.g. a farm tractor). That is the reason why the investigations were carried out in a laboratory. The laboratory technicians applied load to the engines through external devices - a hydraulic system for the excavator and a brake coupled to the farm tractor power takeoff. During the tests the authors attempted to reflect the operating conditions (prerecorded engine speed and load when the machinery operated in the field). The paper presents the results of the investigations on the PM emissions during the simulated actual conditions of operation of the farm tractor and the excavator. The performed measurements have shown the mass, number and size distribution of the particulate matter. For the measurement the authors used modern technology analyzers: AVL Micro Soot Sensors and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer by TSI. Besides, to complement the research complement, exhaust emissions measurements have been carried out.