Singh, K., Arat, M., and Taheri, S., "Enhancement of Collision Mitigation Braking System Performance Through Real-Time Estimation of Tire-road Friction Coefficient by Means of Smart Tires," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Electron. Electr. Syst. 5(2):607-624, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-2014.
In the case of modern day vehicle control systems employing a feedback control structure, a real-time estimate of the tire-road contact parameters is invaluable for enhancing the performance of the chassis control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC) systems. However, at present, the commercially available tire monitoring systems are not equipped to sense and transmit high speed dynamic variables used for real-time active safety control systems. Consequently, under the circumstances of sudden changes to the road conditions, the driver's ability to maintain control of the vehicle maybe at risk. In many cases, this requires intervention from the chassis control systems onboard the vehicle. Although these systems perform well in a variety of situations, their performance can be improved if a real-time estimate of the tire-road friction coefficient is available. Existing tire-road friction estimation approaches often require certain levels of vehicle longitudinal and/or lateral motion to satisfy the persistence of excitation condition for reliable estimations. Such excitations may undesirably interfere with vehicle motion controls. This paper presents a novel development and implementation of a real-time tire-road contact parameter estimation methodology using acceleration signals from a smart/intelligent tire. The proposed method characterizes the terrain using the measured frequency response of the tire vibrations and provides the capability to estimate the tire road friction coefficient under extremely lower levels of force utilization. Under higher levels of force excitation (high slip conditions), the increased vibration levels due to the stick/slip phenomenon linked to the tread block vibration modes make the proposed tire vibrations based method unsuitable. Therefore for high slip conditions, a tire-road friction model-based parameter estimation approach is proposed. Hence an integrated approach using the smart/intelligent tire based friction estimator and the model based estimator gives us the capability to reliably estimate friction for a wider range of excitations. Considering the strong interdependence between the operating road surface condition and the instantaneous forces and moments generated; this real time estimate of the tire-road friction coefficient is expected to play a pivotal role in improving the performance of a number of vehicle control systems. In particular, this paper focuses on the possibility of enhancing the performance of collision mitigation braking systems.