Atwater, T. and Tavares, P., "Halogenated Lithium Manganese Oxide AB2O4-dXd Spinel Cathode Material," SAE Int. J. Mater. Manf. 6(1):85-89, 2013, doi:10.4271/2012-01-2211.
The benefits of lithium battery systems lie within their high energy density (Wh/L) and high specific energy (Wh/kg). Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is an attractive active cathode material because of its high energy density and low material cost. Manganese dioxide is an intercalating compound for lithium that functions by solvating and desolvating lithium cations from the electrolyte in solid state. The lithium cations are deposited into the vacancies of the MnO2 cathode crystal structure. The objective of this effort focuses on the limited cycle life of rechargeable lithium manganese-based electrochemical systems, most importantly capacity fading of the cathode. These two characteristics are considered the major technology hurdles in rechargeable lithium battery technology.1, 2, 3, 4