Santee, S., Currier, J., Puglia, F., and Wallace, J., "Development of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Naval Aviation Applications," SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 5(2):541-547, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-2227.
Experimental Lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells were constructed with three different types of Li-ion cathode materials and two different graphitic anodes. The cathode materials were lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide, LiNiXCoYAlZO2 (NCA), lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide, LiNiXCoYMnZO2 (NCM), and lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4 (FEP). The two graphitic anodes differed only in particle size. The cells were built in lots identified by their cathode and anode materials. The goal was to develop a battery for Naval Aviation applications. Initial testing favored the cells built with an NCM cathode. Further testing was per MIL-PRF-8565/14(AS) with Amendment 1, which resulted in a reduced voltage range during testing favoring the NCA lots. The cells were tested under two different types of cycle life conditions. In both cases, the NCA lots fared best. The NCA lots also had the lowest DC Resistance (DC Res) results (both ≤10 mΩ). One NCA lot experienced no loss in discharge capacity at -20°C after cycling at 70°C, and little loss (-6.5%) after storage at 85°C. That NCA lot was selected for the developmental battery build.