Benninger, K., Fischer, U., and Lillie, C., "Energy Management - A Key Approach to Design The System Structure of Powertrain Control: Technology Leadership Brief," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-9007, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-9007.
The electrification of the powertrain, the diversity and the complexity of the more or less individual technical solutions which are preferred by different car manufacturers, create a steadily increasing challenge for the whole automotive industry. Missing standards and sales volumes still below the market expectations on the one hand, and the increasing interaction of the main powertrain domains (engine, transmission, e-drive) caused by upcoming cross domain functions on the other hand, lead to increasing development costs and non-optimal solutions concerning fuel economy improvement. Within the domain of engine management systems Bosch established in the mid-nineties the so called torque structure as the solution to a similar situation addressing the coordination of air management, fuel injection and ignition. Energy Based Powertrain Control is expected to deliver similar benefits based on the system level of powertrain control coordinating the interrelated control of engine, gearbox and e-machine.